Architecture and visual arts of the middle ages
Until the 11th century in medieval Western Europe, a stone building almost was not conducted.
11.12 in centuries everywhere erected stone castles, monasteries, temples. All these buildings have thick, smooth walls with small Windows, massive columns supporting the ceiling, powerful towers, semi-circular arches. Not only locks, but temples and monasteries resembled a fortress and served as a refuge for the surrounding population during hostilities.
In modern times these buildings called Romanesque (from the Latin word .Roma. Rome). Indeed, medieval builders were studying the ruins of the ancient Roman architecture and borrowed from some Roman construction techniques (e.g., semi-circular arch).
To our days have survived tens of Romanesque structures, such as the castle tower in London, the Cathedral in Speyer. the burial place of German emperors, the Cathedral Saint-Lazare in
The Autun (France), decorated by the famous relief depicting the last judgment, etc.
With the emergence and growth of cities began to shape a new style in architecture. Gothic. The name originated in the Renaissance (15.16 centuries); it comes from the name of Germanic tribe. ready and wore a derogatory nature: the Gothic. i.e. barbaric, unlike the ancient buildings that people Revival seemed to be exemplary. We continue polzovatsja name, though it failed: the buildings were not created by the Goths, the French, Germans, British and other peoples of Europe at 12.15 centuries; Gothic buildings justly considered wonderful works of medieval art.
Urban builders erected the town hall and the cathedrals. Since the cities were surrounded by defensive walls, it was not necessary to transform urban buildings in the fortress. Gothic cathedrals were. compared to Romanesque structures. thinner walls, crowned with pinnacles, large Windows, pointed arches.
The tallest building in the city and most magnificent of all was the Cathedral. It was built on high ground and visible from afar. In the construction of the Cathedral was usually attended by the entire population of the city.
The large Windows of Gothic cathedrals were filled with stained glass. paintings on biblical themes, composed of pieces of colored translucent glass.
The most famous Gothic buildings: cathedrals. Notre-Dame de Paris, Reims, and Chartres (France); in Magdeburg and Naumburg (Germany); Salisbury (England); the town hall. in Stralsund (Germany), Bruges (Belgium) and many others.
Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals were decorated with sculptures depicting Jesus, the virgin and the saints. Some cathedrals were placed the statues of kings and noble lords who have made donations for the construction of the Cathedral (for example, the statue of count Ekkerhard and his wife Uta in Naumburg).