Gothic. Birth and masterpieces (Gothic style)
Gothic style that has become a hallmark of the middle Ages. She was not the only style of the era just past. It is embellished with fantastic lace thread stone spikes flew up and bloomed the precious radiance of the stained glass Windows throughout Catholic Europe in the XII century. France, England, Germany, Spain, Czech Republic and even Italy, the birthplace of the Renaissance, voznikoveniia her. A special role in the history of Gothic art, the former, above all, art architects, played, however, was France, England and Germany. France became her home. England chose its national style, constantly going back to her forms, transforming them, but not forgetting. Germany, the romantics, has got the honor to return Gothic art from the darkness of oblivion, to reveal its beauty.
The term “Gothic” originated not in the Middle ages. In the Renaissance (and this term, by the way, was not invented by Italian craftsmen, many later French historians and artists have introduced it) the art is ready, that is, the art of the barbarians called all Nanticoke works of art. Besides, is the ingenious theory that “explains” the emergence of the famous Lancet arches. In a letter to Pope Leo X someone (for a long time the author believed Raphael) indicated that the origin of her they are “from those popularnych trees, which, if signalname and to link their branches, form a pointed arch”.
During its millennial history the art knew a lot of styles, but is very rarely possible to name the author, the exact date and place of birth of any of them. Gothic rare exception. As mentioned above, she was born in France and, by the way, thanks light. From the view that God is light (so you can briefly formulate the main postulate of the doctrine, which became the theoretical basis of Gothic art). The “father” of the Gothic – Abbot Suger, a former rector of the main Church “institution” in France – the Abbey of Saint-Denis. New style became for him the embodiment of the ideas found in the writings attributed to the ancient founder of the monastery, the former burial place of French kings, Saint Dionysios, the first Saint of France. Now the Cathedral is the reliquary, the reliquary for the divine light that penetrates the Cathedral through the window that swallows the wall.
Although, of course, be called the Gothic “opening” is not purely metaphysical. Without the development of the tangible ways her physical, earthly incarnations of the famous cathedrals, and the Gothic is primarily the art of the cathedrals, to appear. So that the Gothic style associated with the tradition and immutability of life – a bold experiment, both technically and from a religious point of view.
Every Gothic Cathedral is the universe. Every Gothic Cathedral is a mystery. Stone lacework of cathedrals enclosed mysteries. Sculpture Gothic churches – the Bible for the illiterate. But not only the Bible, the Saints are side by side with the unknown, strange creatures (among them the most famous “monsters” cathedrals gargoyle, cloaking device drains) mysterious signs of antiquity with Christian symbolism. Many centuries and continue to live the legend that the stone of alchemy Gothic churches hid the secrets of his craft.
France, here was built the most famous Cathedral of the era – Notre Dame de Paris. Notre Dame – the Notre Dame Cathedrals all so called the best Gothic churches in this land. The bishops of medieval cities constantly trying to outdo each other by constructing magnificent temples. Sometimes it ended in tears for them, for example, the townspeople, outraged by raising taxes (such construction cost is very expensive) could revolt and, at best, to cast it out. Competed, by the way, not only bishops, but also many craft guilds. The result of this competition have become the cathedrals of Reims, Chartres, Lana, Amiens, Reims…, most perfect embodiment of the Gothic style and the place of coronation of the kings of France (since the first one, Clovis, was baptized here). Chartres, Cathedral of this city almost as famous as the temple of Paris. LAN its towers, decorated with figures of bulls were recognized as perfect and a role model. Amiens, the Cathedral is the highest, largest among them and thus among all the Gothic cathedrals in the world. It is called the “Gothic Parthenon” for the purity and clarity of the embodiment of the fundamental laws of style.
Gothic Albion quaint and exquisite. There temples are not so much sought up how much forest finest carved stone columns grew along the ground. Stone lace temples delights of France, England is staggering. It seems that only a mad genius or a magician could create. Yes, the early Gothic of England a logical and simple (as far as this style can be logical and simple). But it coexists with the most wayward, illogical, bizarre and unpredictable direction of the Gothic style is “decorated Gothic”.
German churches on the contrary were always soaring. The majestic silhouettes of the towers, eager to get lost in the sky. Gothic German is harsh and strict. Almost modest. Decoration of its temples are inferior in sophistication and richness of the cathedrals neighbors, but they have amazing proud Majesty is not familiar to them.
… Gothic cathedrals are like crowns. In the stone rose petals (the so-called famous round Windows that have become constant attributes) burning radiance of precious gems stained glass Windows. Their secrets will not be unraveled. What adds special charm. Isn’t it?