Gothic sculpture.The main type of art in the Gothic period sculpture. For the first time since antiquity the statues and sculptural groups (on the facades of cathedrals or on the altar screen) got rich artistic content and developed of plastic form.
Gothic cathedrals look like forests. And these forests are inhabited by various creatures both real and fantastic. Here and brooding Chimera, sheep, donkeys, oxen in the gospel scenes, fish, birds, beavers, dogs, squirrels, woodpeckers, lizards, turtles, snakes and gargoyles in the form of animals with his mouth open. And above it all dominated people. Sculpture prevails in Cathedral portals, extends across the facade, fancy using every ledge, almost every architectural detail. Cathedrals such as Paris, Amiens and Chartres comprise each up to 2 thousand sculptures.
Gothic sculpture is a phenomenon of great significance in the world of artistic creativity. It is significantly different from the sculpture of the Romanesque period. First, during the Gothic reigns round plastic and there is no relief. Secondly, ossification and the isolation pillars Romanesque statues were replaced by the mobility of the figures, they turned to each other and to the viewer. Images of religious subjects are endowed with traits of profound humanity. There is renewed interest in real natural forms, to visionsconnected and feelings of a person. In art includes themes of motherhood, mental suffering, martyrdom, emotional stability of the victim of violence.
Thirdly, increasing the role of secular subjects, an important place is beginning to play a portrait. The first monuments round plastics appear in the middle of the 12th century, However, only with the beginning of the 13th century Gothic sculpture comes into maturity. In 30-40-ies. begins the period of its greatest prosperity.
The sculpture of the Cathedral was placed under the theological (religious) science, on which the Cathedral is assembled to the focus structure of the universe. On the West (sunset) typically was the scene of the “last judgment”. At the top Christ pointed to his wounds at the sides Mary and John the Evangelist, around angels with the instruments of the sufferings of Christ and the apostles. Under them – weighing good and bad deeds of the Archangel Michael. To the left of the viewer – the righteous entering into Paradise. Right – demons, imbue sinners and scenes of torment in hell. Below gaping of the sepulchre, and the resurrection of the dead. On the sides of the entrances of visitors to the Cathedral be welcomed by the statues of Christ and the apostles.
Right portal (entrance) is usually dedicated to Mary, here depicted scenes of “assumption”, “Sunday”, “Coronation” (the Cathedral in 1230, Strasbourg). Left portal – venerated local Saint. and it depicted scenes from the legends of his life. The South side was dedicated to the stories of the New Testament, North side dedicated to the characters from the old Testament. As the universe Gothic Cathedral included an image of the real world and its concepts: seasons in the form of signs of the zodiac, or scenes of agricultural work, the allegorical figures of “liberal arts” – grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music.
Numerous images of kings, knights, prelates, artisans, peasants reflected the hierarchical structure of feudal society. The masterpieces of French Gothic sculpture: “the smile of Reims” – smiling angel (statue Western facade of the Cathedral in Reims, 1230-1233.). This smile angel more timid, a little shy, Cutesy, but captivating, truly spring. It is charming in its reticence.
“Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth” (a group of sculptures of the Cathedral in Reims, 1230-1233.). We see specific personality, a specific destiny, a particular beauty of these two wonderful women (Mary bore Christ, Elisabeth – John the Baptist). Reims Cathedral occupies a significant place in the history of medieval art, it is sometimes called Gothic Parthenon.
Original German sculpture. The Germans often learned from the French, but were original. The German world is an intertwining of the “barbarian” heritage of the ancient civilization. If French sculpture graced the interior and exterior (krasatulya function), German sculpture of the fantastic, sharply expressive, exaggerated. Her images are individualized, even portrait. To the masterpieces of German Gothic plastics belong in the first place sculpture series of cathedrals in Bamberg and Naumburg, was created in the 13th century Bamberg Horseman is undoubtedly the best equestrian statue of the middle ages.
Before us a perfect image of a fighter for the right thing, the hero had imagined at that time (sculptural image echoes the image of Siegfried, “the Song of the Nibelungs”). We believe that such men kneeling praised their ladies and fought with their name on the jousting tournaments. It seems to us that this gentleman is not capable of violence, oppression of the disadvantaged. Wonderful 12 magnificent statues in the choir of Naumburg Cathedral. This feudal rulers, in which was laid the Cathedral. Unknown great artist has created typical images, but at the same time strictly individualized and specific.
Individualized and beautiful images of a married couple Margrave of Ekkehard with his wife Uta (Margrave – the count, the ruler of the region – the brand with the rights of the Imperial Prince). These images capture us with their truthfulness (ill.87). Childishly expressive glance of Uta, a charming gesture of her hand, snuggled up to the neck collar of a trench coat, carried in harmonious folds. Her elderly husband, with a straight face, with a big sword.
In the Gothic period was distributed cult of the virgin. If Romanesque sculptural image of the virgin is often merely symbolic, religious idea, captured in stone, the Gothic the virgin Mary is already a young mother, which the artist likes to pretend play with the baby.
The medieval sculptor usually came from the people and considered himself and was considered a craftsman. So Gothic sculpture is deeply popular, despite the fact that the Church demanded from fine art paintings bogoslovskogo visual interpretation of the universe. In the folk style shown Reims “Christ the mendicant,” a simple wide-brimmed peasant hat and a Grand elevation of the Cathedral in Naumburg last supper. And Christ, and gathered around him the disciples were peasants, people of physical labor, with a prominent podkreplyalisj pleasure in an hour of relaxation with some very simple dishes.
The nation is also apparent in the German imagination, far from worship, piety often combined in the Gothic art with the most mischievous grotesque. On the reliefs of the Cathedral of Rouen we find the centaur in monks hood, a philosopher with a pig’s head, a music teacher – palupera, etc. beginning Folk found, perhaps, the most solid reflection in calendar cycles – allegories of months. These are small reliefs that adorn the cathedrals in Paris, Amiens, Senlis, and many a humble village Church Gothic pores. These allegories reflect the daily lives of ordinary people that were going in their vaults.