The Gothic style originated in France in the mid-twelfth century, and by the beginning of the next century engulfed almost the whole of Europe. The patron and the probable author of the Gothic aesthetics has become a father Superius (1081 — 1151), Advisor to the French king St. Louis IX. Under his leadership, 1137 — 1144, was built first Gothic Church in Europe — the Church of the monastery of Saint-Denis in Paris. In 1163 construction began on the main temple of the French capital, the Notre Dame Cathedral. This temple is glorified Gothic style throughout the Christian world and became the model for numerous imitations.
The most beautiful of the Gothic cathedrals built in France on the model of Notre-Dame de Paris became a temple of Reims, the ecclesiastical capital of France, where for almost a thousand years were crowned the French kings. Like the Paris Cathedral, West facade of the temple consists of three tiers, the second of which emphasizes the delicate rose, and the third is completed by two powerful towers, deprived of tent floors. At the same time, the architecture of the Reims Cathedral is much more perfect than Paris in the plastic facade overcome Romanesque heaviness, pattern openwork missirkov skillfully woven into the lace of pinnacles, impergom and arctur, and the horizontal tiering is completely hidden under Gothic filigree pattern.
The oldest part of the Church is Notre-Dame choir, begun by the architect Jean d Orb in 1211 and completed in 1241 Godego successor, Jean Le Loup. There is still inherent early Gothic simplicity and monumentality of the architectural masses. Jean Le Loup has completed the façades of the transept and the apse built a giant temple. To the finest of the bulkhead separating the huge Windows of the apse, stood the mass of the roof, the architect used the technique developed by Spiricom — the outside of the house were supported giant arches — flying buttresses. These, in fact, purely technical adaptations Jean Le Loup turned into one of the main decorations of the Cathedral, covered with exquisite carvings.
In 1247 — 1255, the architect Gaucher de Reims created the Western facade of the Cathedral. He deepened the portals, putting them in perspective series of the archivolt, changed foreseen by Jean Le Loup, the location of statues and crowned with a tympanum wonderful vinagame. But work on the Cathedral did not stop: the final touch in creating the masterpiece was the work of Bernard Subconscio, who in 1255 — 1290, has Created unsurpassed in its refinement of a rose-window and rebuilt the towers of the belfry, facilitating their silhouette with openwork external supports. Finished the Reims Cathedral became one of the most beautiful Gothic cathedrals in the world.