5 major achievements of ancient Egypt
The culture of ancient Egypt is divided into several periods: pre-dynastic, Old, Middle, New Kingdom and Later. And lasts from the fourth Millennium BC — the time of formation and the centralization of governance in the state, until 30-th years BC — rule of the last Pharaoh from the dynasty of Ptolemies (Alexander the great ) and the conquest of the Roman Empire headed by Augustus (Octavian) — a descendant of Julius Caesar. During the existence of the world civilization was made many revolutionary discoveries, the results of which we use in our day.
1. Egyptian achievements in mathematics and astronomy
The first mathematical research was done in Egypt. Residents of the Nile Delta invented the decimal system of calculation, were able to divide and multiply. It was known the value of “PI”, which was taken on the basis of the proportions of the great pyramid of Cheops and the tombs of other pharaohs. The Egyptians knew how to determine area and volume.
The main achievements of ancient Egypt were made in astronomy. In the temple of Dendera, near the modern city of Luxor was discovered first in the world of the zodiac circle. The original of it is stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris, in Egypt, tourists can see the exact plaster copy.
Also in Egypt was found a few ancient zodiac maps. It was known that the life cycle of 1460 years Seriousbondage, and Mars and Venus have certain phases.
The Egyptians invented the first calendar. To calculate the number of months, and then days of the year helped them harvesting, which depended on the seasonal flooding of the Nile. After winning the right to open was given to Rome. One month was named after Julius Caesar’s “July”.
The zodiac, the Dendera Chruch. The Louvre, Paris.
2. The achievements of Ancient Egypt in medicine
Thanks to archaeological finds it became known that the higher ecclesiastics of the state — priests, had no idea about human anatomy. They had perfected techniques to carry out complicated operations that became available recently: craniotomy, amputation, operations on the eye. Widely used herbal treatments and oils, special attention was paid to practice the sport.
In Egypt, invented the prototype of the modern chemical ampicillin for the treatment of infectious diseases. The opening was very simple: bread cakes over time was covered with mould. It was applied to the inflamed place and after a while the wound was delayed. Composition of ampicillin was studied only in the mid-twentieth century.
Egyptian doctors served in the courts of the kings of the neighbouring States. In Persia the most famous physician was the Egyptian Udjahorresnet.
Medicine of ancient Egypt
3. The appearance of writing in ancient Egypt
The Egyptians invented a material for writing historical Chronicles on papyrus. Made from the stems of Lotus which grew on the banks of the Nile. Technology of preparation of the material for writing was brought to perfection: some leaves with priceless information and are today in excellent condition. The article is freely readable, pictures are well visible. The information delivered in the papyri, are the basis of information about the cultural past of the ancient civilization and the States of Mesopotamia. They contained information of an encyclopedic character and the first geographical maps, reflecting the views of the Egyptians about the location of neighboring empires. One of them shows the route of the army of Pharaoh-around the continent of Africa.
4. Achievements in the construction of Egypt
The best monuments of ancient civilizations were built for ideological purposes. They demonstrated the unlimited power of the immortal pharaohs. A distinctive feature of the buildings of ancient Egypt was the grandeur, the monumentality and massiveness. Before the erection of the Eiffel tower in 1889, the Pyramid was considered the tallest building in the world. The great Sphinx and funerary complex of Khufu at Giza are the last surviving of the seven wonder of the world. Other impressive architectural monuments were the temple of Ramses II in Abu Simbel, the tombs of the city of Abydos, of Karnak in the ancient capital of Thebes.
Egyptian pyramids of Giza
5. The religion of the ancient Egyptians
The birth of civilization marked the advent of polytheism combined with the abundance of female quillow for worship. They occupied in the hierarchy of idols in the high place: ISIS (ISIS), Hathor (Hathor, Dendera). In their honor, built entire temple complexes: the Dendera Chruch in Luxor, the temple of ISIS in Aswan. They worshipped and brought gifts to ordinary citizens, saying prayers for the flooding of the Nile and a good harvest. In their honor, performed rites of sacrifice and the pharaohs, whose power was based on the anointing and the revelation of gods favor. Also, when the image of the sculptures regligion figures used features of the animal world. Some kings called their names as the rulers of dynasties zero Scorpio. The Crocodile, The Falcon.
At the last stage of the ancient Egyptian state for religious beliefs were characteristic features of monotheism (the reforms of the Pharaoh Akhenaten). A special place in the traditional funeral rites had been paid to the cult. How to read the prayers and conduct the process of mummification was known only to the clergy — the priests, all the mysteries of the journey to the underworld. Texts of spells with pictures were later combined into “the book of the Dead ” inscribed on the walls of tombs of the great pharaohs.
Special attention was paid to the embalming of the body after death. In the tomb with the deceased were placed the mummies of the wives, children (the first dynasty of Egypt), and even Pets. In a dedicated room kept the furnishings and supplies products and gold, the volume of which depended on the wealth of the owner. Compliance with all requirements of burial required significant financial and time costs. Not every citizen could afford this procedure.
The literature of ancient Egypt
On ancient Egyptian papyrus and cave drawings was depicted not only the texts of religious subjects, and scenes from daily life and government. Used various genres: teaching, biography, fairy tale, humorous and even satiricheskaya. The ancient Egyptians were not averse to a joke and wrote the whole agenda, making fun of the control system. The most well-known works were “the song of the harpist”, “the Story of Sinuhet”, “a Conversation disappointed with his spirit”. In understanding the culture of the ancient Egyptians has played a crucial obelisks, which were coated with hieroglyphs, with descriptions of military campaigns, the lives of ordinary Egyptians, pharaohs achievements.
Book Of The Dead Ancient Egypt
The Literature Of Ancient Egypt
The basis of the culture of ancient Egypt were the following tenets as reflected in the literature:
1. The embodiment of justice, high moral principles. Fear of torment in the afterlife after death. The cult of Maat with a scale, on the one hand which are good deeds, on the other the sins of man.
2. The elements of the existence of collective intelligence. Offset features of civilised society and primitive .
3. The desire for knowledge of the world, rationalism. Strict hierarchical relations in culture and science.
4. Traditionism, pochetnye religious cults of the ancestors.
The main symbol of the ancient Egyptian culture was the figure of the Sphinx, combining the features of man and animal.
The merits of the architect Imhotep of Egypt
The most outstanding achievements of ancient Egypt were created thanks to the knowledge of the approximate to the court architect and architect Imhotep. The official is sometimes even claimed the status of Pharaoh. In his contributions include the development of schemes and calculations for the construction of the pyramid of Cheops. He suggested that the most appropriate model of slope structures, which ensured its sustainability. Because of non-compliance proportions, ancient complexes located in the necropolis of Saqqara, near Giza, are in very poor condition. Many of them are completely destroyed and a pile of rubble. Esotericists who claim that the pyramids were the result of the work of extraterrestrial civilizations, suggested that great knowledge has been reported to Imhotep alien beings.
Video script and religion of Ancient Egypt