Krakow is without doubt one of the most beautiful cities of Poland, with its specific and unique character. It’s here for centuries, met different people, cultures and religions, creating an exceptional atmosphere of this city. Krakow is one of the few places in the world, which was listed as a World Cultural Heritage site by UNESCO. The architectural team of the old town, which has endured all historical cataclysms, while retaining unchanged since the middle ages, the system was recognized as one of the most precious treasures of architecture in the world. Only within the boundaries of the old Centre of Krakow there are more than 300 historic stone houses, churches and palaces. Their rich interior decoration testifies to the hard work of long-time residents of this town, about their sense of beauty and aesthetics. Its fame Krakow obliged, also, to outstanding people who lived here, such as N. Copernicus, the brilliant astronomer, W. Stwosz – a great sculptor, J. Matejko – famous artist S. Wyspiański – a great dramaturg, poet and painter, and living in the moment; The Karol Wojtyla – Pope John Paul II and the world-famous composer kshishtov Penderetsky. Krakow, which until the XVII century was the capital of the Polish state, up to the present day have preserved the spiritual character of the capital, bobcatlerona significant center of science and culture of Poland. Today in Krakow there are many international institutions, and the diversity and richness of cultural offers Krakow: theatres, museums, galleries, is a unique opportunity to commune with art.
The Barbican is a valuable landmark of medieval military architecture. Built in 1498 – 1499, during the reign of king Jan Olbracht for the protection of the Florian Gate predpole. This is a massive round structure of brick, with three-metre thick walls have 130 embrasures and 7 observation towers. The tower allowed us to monitor the movements of the enemy and accordingly the shooting. To enter this consolidation was possible through a suspension bridge over the deep, 8 meters wide moat. The Barbican was connected with Florenskii double Gates massive protective wall with road travel in the middle. This group of fortification, surrounded by walls, ramparts and moats were to the enemy an impenetrable barrier.
The building of Collegium mouse – najstarsze Gothic building of the University Jagiellonskiego. Built in conjunction with a number of buildings, purchased on the funds of Queen Jadwiga, destined for didactic purpose and residential. The 1400s was the main building of the University, which was the Jagiellonian Library, which later, during the occupation, was moved to a new building on the square of Adam Mickiewicz. Today at College the mouse is a Museum of the history of the University Jagiellonskiego with very interesting exhibits, representative halls of the University, and in the Treasury, there are valuable astronomical instruments, insignia professors and works of art. You should pay special attention to the book of University students with entry N. Copernicus in 1491. Inside the Collegium is an interesting arcade courtyard with XV.
The building of Collegium Novum – the neo-Gothic building built in 1883 – 1887 by the project of architect Felix Ksiegarska on the site of the old boarding student. The facade is decorated with the coats of arms of the University Jagiellonskiego and its biggest virtues. In the Assembly hall on the second floor hang the portraits of professors and other valuable paintings relating to the history and traditions of the University, among them the painting of Jan Matejko “Nicolaus Copernicus”. During world war II in this building Hitler’s ocupancy arrested 183 professors and scientific employees of the University who were taken to death camps. Famous students of the University Jagiellonskiego were Nicolaus Copernicus, king John III Sobieski, Pope John Paul P.
Town hall Tower is the surviving part of the Gothic town hall from the beginning of the fourteenth century. The building is brick and decorated with stone okladki creates a beautiful Gothic ornament. The third tower covered with a Baroque helmet, because those that were earlier burned. In 1960 he was made a reconstruction of the tower, which was later given to the Historical Museum of the City of Krakow. At the height of the second floor, at the corners, you can see the late Gothic portals and a stone mask of pohodyashin from the XIV century. Inside the tower on the ground floor there is a Gothic cottage, which was previously the main Treasury. From the Windows of the premises located at the very top, where sat the convicts, a beautiful view on Main Market.
The cloth hall – the first skinnie trays delivered on the Home Market – the largest city square in srednevekovoi Europe, early in the second half of XIII century during the reign of Prince Boleslaw the Bashful. At first they were primitive, stone shops with a narrow street down the middle. In XIV during the reign of king Casimir the Great Voznesenka brick, roofed Gothic building. Access it was through arches built of brick, which survived to our days. After the fire in the other half of the XVI century ustroeno their 1556 – 1559 in the Renaissance style. At that time erected a beautiful and Attica, which was zaproektirovany Italian sculptor Santi Gucci. In the nineteenth made a radical reorganization, based on the old architecture, and giving it new values.
The Cathedral of the Holy virgin Mary is a Gothic trinitee building with six open inside the chapels, osmebody the chancel and the two towers. The history of this Church reaches the beginning of the fourteenth century, when the stone Cathedral in the XIII century began to build the brick Church. Inside the Church are valuable Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque objects. Noteworthy is the beautiful wooden altar of Veit Stoss from the second half of the XV century. This is one of the largest Gothic altars in Europe. Entirely made of wood, having the shape of a huge wardrobe with sliding doors. The sculptures on the altar polychrome and richly gilded, represent scenes from the Holy Scriptures. The main theme of the altar is the dream of the Mother of God.
The main Market – the biggest square of Europe srednevekovoi, it leaves the surface of about 40,000 sq. m. First layout the Main Market dates back to the year 1257, and its disproportionate form is linked to the fact that some buildings, such as St. Mary’s Church, cloth hall, Church of St. Adalbert, town Hall and many others, were here before. In ancient times the Market was built numerous constructions that have not survived to our days, such as trays, city pillory barn, large scales. It is here where centuries ago, the celebration took place the yard today, held various local festivities. The market which is willing to come krakovany and many tourists, is the salon of Krakow.
Wawel castle – in ancient times it was the seat of Polish Dukes and kings. During the reign of Zygmunt I the Old castle had its “Golden age.” Here Italian sculptors, painters and decorators had left behind his best works. The reign of Jan Kazimierz, during the Swedish “deluge”, it was dramatic for the Wawel. The Swedes occupied the castle, destroyed and plundered it. Destruction has exacerbated the reviews of Poland. After the liberation of kraków began the repair and preservation work. These works were interrupted by the second world war, the Royal castle is invaded by the occupiers and taken away or destroyed many valuable works of art. In the former Royal Palace is today a Museum called the State Art Collection at Wawel castle, which is the most beautiful Museum in Poland.
Royal Castle – the present Renaissance castle was built by Zygmunt the Old after the fire that destroyed the old Gothic castle. In the huts, on the ground floor were located the Treasury, the archive and there were rooms for servants. Rooms on the second floor served as residential apartments. The most beautiful is the bedroom of king Sigismund I with its painted ceiling and baldachinum bed. On the third floor were entertainment halls where the kings took foreign ambassadors. You should pay attention to the “Ambassador” hall, whose walls are covered with colorful arrasada, and the ceiling is decorated with decoration of carved human heads. One of the most beautiful hall is “Under the Birds” with walls covered with embossed, gilded skin. In the same beautiful “Senatorial” hall hosted receptions and celebrations of the yard.