Cologne Cathedral is a Gothic gem of Germany
High vaulted ceiling, columns, arches, tall Windows with stained-glass Windows — that the Gothic style was the leading trend in the XIII – XV centuries. Gem Germany is undoubtedly the Cologne Cathedral of the Saints Peter and Mary. This is one of the largest cathedrals in Europe. Huge towers of the Cologne Cathedral are visible from almost any point in the city. This Cathedral has a special place in all of Gothic architecture.
The Cathedral is a Basilica of huge reddish stone of trachyte, with an area of about 8500 square meters. Cathedral length — 144 m, width of transept — 83 meters, height of the building to the ridge of the roof is about 60 meters. On the Western facade of the Cathedral has two huge towers topped with pointed spires. They rise to a height of 157 meters. Outside on the building — weight support of the pilasters, galleries, pass-through gratings, and its main portal is richly decorated with sculptural plasticity, decorative thread that is repeated from tier to tier of pointed arches. The huge main hall of the Cathedral is surrounded by many chapels and chapels and the vaulting is supported by columns with a height of 44 meters. Wall and floor of the Cathedral is lined in grey Rhine stones. Two steep spiral staircases — in 509 steps each leading to the bell tower, located inside the towers.
Bollymasala Cologne Cathedral and the largest “working” bell in the world is “Peter” — it weighs 24 tons. He was cast recently in 1923 from the metal of cannons captured from the French in 1871. Besides Peter there is “Exquisite” bell, which is so named because they emitted pure tone. In addition to these two bells in the tower there are two more, but smaller.
High in the upper rows of Windows shining magnificent stained glass Windows. Window of Kings, and Biblical and Saints of the Magi, located in the gallery of the choir, in a side chapel, preserved from the year 1280. In Marienkapelle you can now see the “adoration of the Magi” – the patronal image of the work of Stefan Lochner. In another chapel is the most ancient sculptural depictions of the Crucifixion, the other buried the founder of the Cologne Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden. On the fence choral parts are 14 sculptures — Christ, Mary and the twelve apostles.
The history of the Cologne Cathedral dates back to the XIII century — it was then decided to build on the site had existed since IX century and burnt down the old Cathedral a new Church. From the beginning the Cathedral was conceived as something Grand that could be compared to famous French buildings. In addition, the construction of Cologne Cathedral was another purpose. It was intended for storage of relics of the Holy Magi, who previously resided in a Milan monastery. These relics were brought from Italy in the early twelfth century German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. For these relics was ordered by a special vessel, which were cast during the 10 years of the purest gold.
August 15, 1248 began construction of the Cathedral. The Archbishop of Cologne Konrad von Hochstaden himself laid the first stone in the Foundation. To 1322 was only half finished Cathedral. However by this time construction was completed on the portal, and a portion of the space was roofed, so it was possible to conduct a Church service. However, in 1450, had stopped work on the South tower. The reason for this was a series of wars and epidemics, and as a consequence — a significant shortfall. In addition, many opposed the construction of Gothic buildings, saying that the Gothic is an extra cost tasteless works of art that lacks beauty and sophistication.
In the nineteenth century changed the attitude towards Gothic art. In particular, in 1815, Goethe himself acted to protect the Cologne Cathedral. The construction of the Cathedral was restored in 1842 at the behest of the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV. The construction took the best architects Germany Friedrich Schinkel and Ernst Friedrich Zwirner. The initial construction plan was fully complied with. In the fall of 1880, the construction was finally completed. After that still had internal processing.
But do not assume that the history of the construction of the Cathedral was fully completed. In 1906, 4 decorative towers collapsed, it became necessary to restore them, but due to the war, in 1945 because of the attacks damaged a significant portion of the Cologne Cathedral.
Bad weather has also contributed to numerous injuries. All this could lead to ultimate destruction of the Cathedral, if not constantly taken protective measures. Chapter history of the construction of Cologne Cathedral is not finished and today.
Cologne Cathedral is not only a place of Church services, but also the largest Museum, which has over the centuries a rich collection of paintings, sculpture, jewelry, frescoes and several other very valuable things.
This Cathedral, built over several centuries, can serve not only as a fine example of Gothic art, but also an example of how the masters of different generations were able to create a building that impresses not only by its size, but also the unity of the incarnation. The temple is still considered the largest in all of Germany, and has long been a masterpiece of European architecture.
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