10 Gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe.
Gothic cathedrals this is not the iconic structures of the ancient Goths, and the temples, built in the Gothic style of architecture. This architectural style emerged in France in the 12th century, it replaced the Romanesque style.
Gothic architecture spread throughout Western Europe and continued to evolve until the 16th century. With the advent of the Renaissance, the Gothic style began to lose its value. Best Gothic style manifested in the architecture of cathedrals, temples and monasteries. For Gothic narrow and high tower, with a pointed top arches, columns, colorful stained-glass Windows and an ornate facade. An integral part of Gothic art is sculpture. The gloomy figures of gargoyles and mythical creatures served as a particularly common decoration on the walls. The combination of iridescent stained glass, gorgeous patterns and stone statues of figures create an inimitable ensemble.
Gothic covers different works of art: painting, fresco, stained glass, sculpture, book miniatures and many others. But as already mentioned, the medieval cathedrals of Europe fully demonstrate the beauty and grandeur of the Gothic style. About them speech also will go below.
1. St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Vienna, Austria
Stephansdom (St Stephen’s Cathedral), located in the heart of Vienna, has survived many wars and is now the symbol of the freedom of the city. The Gothic Cathedral stands on the ruins of two previous churches. Its construction was largely initiated in the 14th century by the Duke of Austria Rudolf IV. And the most recognizable feature of the Cathedral – tiled roof depicting the national emblem and coat of arms of the city of Vienna, was only added in 1952.
2. Burgos Cathedral. Burgos, Spain
The Cathedral of Burgos (Burgos Cathedral) – medieval Cathedral in the same city, dedicated to the virgin Mary. It is famous for its vast size and unique Gothic architecture. The construction of the Cathedral began in 1221, and after a long break of almost two centuries was completed in 1567. In 1919 the Cathedral became the burial place of the national hero of Spain Rodrigo díaz de Vivar (El CID the Kampeadorom) and his wife Jimena díaz.
3. Reims Cathedral. Reims, France
Reims Cathedral (Reims Cathedral) is a place in which they were officially crowned numerous French monarchs. He built on the site of the Basilica where once (approximately 496 year) Holy Remy was baptized Clovis I – one of the greatest politicians of his time. The construction of the Cathedral was completed by the end of the 13th century.
4. The Cathedral of Milan. Milan, Italy
Exceptionally large and complex Gothic Cathedral on the main square of Milan is one of the most famous buildings in Europe. This is one of the largest Gothic cathedrals in the world. Construction began in 1386 under the patronage of Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo (Antonio da Saluzzo) in late Gothic style more typical of France than of Italy. It’s been five centuries before the construction was completed.
5. Seville Cathedral. Seville, Spain
Located on the majestic mosque of Almohad, medieval Cathedral was built to demonstrate the power and richness of Seville after a long process of Reconquista. At the time of its completion in the 16th century, it supplanted the Hagia Sophia as the largest in the world. The builders used some columns and elements of the former mosque. The most famous Giralda tower with rich patterns and ornaments, a former minaret converted into a bell tower.
6. York Minster. York, England
One of the two largest Gothic cathedrals in Northern Europe (alongside Cologne Cathedral in Germany). York Minster rises above the horizon in the lovely and historic city and includes all the stages of Gothic architectural development in England. The construction of the existing building was begun in about 1230 and completed in 1472. The Cathedral is famous for the largest medieval stained glass window.
7. The Cathedral Of Notre Dame. Paris, France
The hunchback of Notre Dame (Notre Dame de Paris) – a beautiful Catholic Cathedral in the fourth arrondissement of Paris. The construction begun in 1163, it was completed only in 1345. One of the most famous French Gothic cathedrals, Notre-Dame de Paris is a great example of French Gothic architecture, sculpture and stained glass. During the French revolution in 1790 a large part of the sculptures and treasures was destroyed and looted. And yet, on 2 December 1804 he was crowned here by the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.
8. Cologne Cathedral. Cologne, Germany
Cologne Cathedral (Cologne Cathedral) the most famous symbol of the city for many centuries. Its height 157,4 meters. The famous Cathedral stands on the spot where in the 4th century was located a Roman temple. The construction of the Gothic Cathedral began in 1248 and lasted, with interruptions more than 600 years. The Cathedral dedicated to saints Peter and Mary and is the main temple of the Cologne Archdiocese.
9. The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Florence, Italy
Begun in 1296, construction in the Gothic style, was completed in 1436. The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore is the symbol of the city and one of the most beautiful buildings in Florence. Remarkable exterior wall of the Basilica, decorated with beautiful marble panels in various shades of green, white, pink. As well as impressive huge brick dome.
10. Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France
Chartres Cathedral is located in the eponymous town near Paris. His dignity, except that he is one of the finest examples of French high Gothic, is that it is almost perfectly preserved. The majority of the original stained-glass Windows of the Cathedral remained intact, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century.