building

PALMA DE MALLORCA

Palma de Mallorca was founded by the Roman Consul Ceciliam Metellus in 123 BC era as a Roman camp. Palma survived the capture of the Byzantine Empire and the colonization of the Moors. And was taken by the Aragonese king Jaime the Conqueror. Each era has left its mark in the history and architecture of the city. It is the capital not only of the island but the whole archipelago, in addition to consists of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera and numerous smaller Islands. Here there are palaces and cathedrals, museums and the fortress. Palma de Mallorca is the permanent summer residence of the Spanish monarchs. Every day here comes a huge number of ships and cruise liners that connect Mallorca to the mainland and ensuring the island’s prosperity.

THE CATHEDRAL LA SEU

The Cathedral of Palma or the Cathedral Santa maría de Palma, best known under a third name – “La seu”, the architectural gem of the Balearic Islands. This is one of the most famous Gothic buildings in Europe and the largest built in the Middle ages. Continue reading

The materials for underground construction, underground construction.

The material with which to build underground structures, must have a high resistance, water resistance, erode, frost resistance and fire resistance. Due to the complexity of reconstruction of underground facilities, their service life should be longer than the land-based structures, respectively, the materials for the manufacture of such structures needs to be better. Materials which meet such requirement are: steel, cast iron, concrete and reinforced concrete. When erecting concrete structures concrete its hardness should not be less than “B15”, and the thickness of load-bearing elements not less than 20 cm. For prestressed concrete structures the concrete grade shall not be less than “B25”. Mark of concrete on water resistance should not be less than “B-6” for structures located in soil moisture hanged. Estimated supports of concrete in concrete and reinforced concrete structures take accordingly to the current normative document. Continue reading

Frame system of Gothic architecture

Load balancing

The innovation technical solution consisted of the following: arch stopped to lean on the solid walls of the building, a massive barrel vault replaced the ribbed openwork cross, the pressure of the vault is transmitted by the ribs and arches on pillars. The resulting horizontal stress is perceived by the flying buttresses and buttresses.

The flying buttresses of Strasbourg Cathedral

“The ribbed vault was much easier Romanesque: decreased and vertical pressure and horizontal stress. Ribbed arch of his heels rested on pillars-the foundations, not walls; the thrust of it was clearly identified and strictly localized, and the Builder, it was clear where and how this wall should be “redeemed”. In addition, the ribbed arch had known flexibility. Shrinkage of the soil, catastrophic for the Romanesque arches, was relatively safe. Finally, the ribbed arch had the advantage of being allowed to overlap the space of irregular shape”. Continue reading